AutoriRojko N1, Kristan K?, Viero G, ?erovnik E, Ma?ek P, Dalla Serra M, Anderluh G.
AbstractActinoporin equinatoxin II (EqtII) is an archetypal example of ?-helical pore-forming toxins that porate cellular membranes by the use of ?-helices. Previous studies proposed several steps in the pore formation: binding of monomeric protein onto the membrane, followed by oligomerization and insertion of the N-terminal ?-helix into the lipid bilayer. We studied these separate steps with an EqtII triple cysteine mutant. The mutant was engineered to monitor the insertion of the N terminus into the lipid bilayer by labeling Cys-18 with a fluorescence probe and at the same time to control the flexibility of the N-terminal region by the disulfide bond formed between cysteines introduced at positions 8 and 69. The insertion of the N terminus into the membrane proceeded shortly after the toxin binding and was followed by oligomerization. The oxidized, non-lytic, form of the mutant was still able to bind to membranes and oligomerize at the same level as the wild-type or the reduced form. However, the kinetics of the N-terminal helix insertion, the release of calcein from erythrocyte ghosts, and hemolysis of erythrocytes was much slower when membrane-bound oxidized mutant was reduced by the addition of the reductant. Results show that the N-terminal region needs to be inserted in the lipid membrane before the oligomerization into the final pore and imply that there is no need for a stable prepore formation. This is different from ?-pore-forming toxins that often form ?-barrel pores via a stable prepore complex.
RivistaThe Journal Of Biological Chemistry
Impact factor
Pagina inizio23704
Pagina fine23715
Linee di Ricerca IBFMD.P01.028.001